25 May 2021

Lives on track? Long-term earnings returns to selective school placement in England and Denmark


Postdoc Jesper Fels Birkelund, and Associate Professor Kristian Bernt Karlson has contributed to the British Journal of Sociology with the article 'Lives on track? Long-term earnings returns to selective school placement in England and Denmark.'

The article is written in collaboration with Lecturer Queralt Capsada-Munsech, University of Glasgow and Professor Vikki Boliver, Durham University.

The authors' explore the influence of between-school ability placement at lower secondary education on earnings across the life course in England and Denmark.

The article goes beyond the mid-career snapshot provided by previous studies by exploiting the availability of four decades worth of earnings data for individuals born in the mid-1950s. Members of this cohort who were judged to be among the most academically able attended grammar schools in England (19%) and advanced secondary schools (Realskole) in Denmark (51%) prior to the start of comprehensivization.

This key difference makes England and Denmark interesting cases for comparison, not least since pro-selection policies have re-emerged in England based on the claim that grammar schools lead to better educational and labor market outcomes. The authors analysis of the influence of selective school placement on earnings finds little support for this contention and they find that those from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds were strikingly under-represented in schools ear-marked for higher ability pupils in both countries, even after taking into account social class differences in measured ability.

The analysis for England finds only modest earnings returns to attending a grammar school, totalling just £39,000 across the life course, while in Denmark the lifetime earnings returns to attending Realskole are somewhat larger (£194,000). Because those from advantaged backgrounds were substantially over-represented at grammar schools and Realskoles, these returns accrue disproportionately to pupils from more advantaged backgrounds. Lower secondary school placement in Denmark accounts for 40% of the intergenerational reproduction of socioeconomic advantage and disadvantage, more than half of which is due to selection into school types based on socioeconomic background rather than measured ability.

The authors' findings question the wisdom of expanding grammar schools when they appear to do little to improve individuals’ earnings or increase social mobility.

The article is available at Wiley Online Library.